Vietnam is among 30 high TB and MDR-TB burden countries in the world, according to the WHO. In 2018, the estimated incidence rate for TB was 182 per 100,000 population and the mortality rate was 13.3 per 100,000 population . In 2018, 102,171 TB cases were notified. It is also estimated that 3.6% of new cases and 17% of previously treated cases were MDR/RR-TB. In 2016, MDR/RR-TB treatment was initiated in 2,450 patients, of which 68% were successfully treated.
Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine, located in Ho Chi Minh City, the capital of Vietnam, was the main partner for the STREAM Stage 1 in Vietnam. The medical university was established in 1989 and is a multi-disciplinary school that is responsible for training health care providers in order to improve the health of Ho Chi Minh City. It is also one of the key training and medical research facilities in the southern part of Vietnam.
A total of 100 patients were enrolled in STREAM Stage 1 in Vietnam.
 Mortality rate includes HIV-positive TB cases