The Republic of Moldova is one of 30 countries with high burden of MDR-TB. In 2018, estimated incidence rate for TB was 86 per 100 000 population and the mortality rate was 6.3 per 100,000 population . In 2018, 3,465 TB cases were notified. It is also estimated that 29% of new cases and 60% of previously treated cases were MDR/RR-TB. In 2016, MDR/RR-TB treatment was initiated in 979 patients, of which 53% were successfully treated.
The Institute of Phthisiopneumology “Chiril Draganiuc” (IPP) from Chisinau, Republic of Moldova was established in 1959. It is the main research institution and republican clinical structure in the field of tuberculosis control and nonspecific pulmonary diseases in Moldova. The IPP implements all activities of the National Tuberculosis Control Program and trains future clinicians and researchers. The Institute also conducts research in epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis and nonspecific pulmonary diseases. The facility operates a 410-bed hospital to treat TB and other pulmonary diseases; the ambulatory department receives 36,000 visits per year. The IPP also houses the National TB Reference Laboratory.
Recruitment in Moldova began in June 2017. The site recruited 63 participants in STREAM Stage 2.
 Mortality rate includes HIV-positive TB cases